eKINDS – Examination of Kinds in Natural Diversification and Speciation


The wide variety of dog breeds provides an excellent example of the genetic diversity God gave to the original created “kinds.” (Wikipedia pics from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog)

Many people are fascinated with the amazing diversity of life that God has place on earth. People frequently ask questions, such as How are different animals related? and How did all this variety arise?

The secular world provides naturalistic answers to these questions. These answers begin with rejecting the Bible’s history of life, and postulating that all life arose by natural processes from a single common ancestor. When examined in detail, however, there are enormous problems with demonstrating the universal ancestry of all life. In contrast, biblical creation holds that God created different groups of animals and plants, which were called “kinds.” He placed distinct divisions between these different groups (1 Cor. 15:39). Thus, life does not share a universal common ancestry. God further instructed the created kinds “to fill the earth” (Genesis 1), indicating He gave life the ability to change and adapt to a wide variety of ecosystems. Critics of biblical creation often claim that we believe in “hyper-evolution” or “evolution on steroids.” The implication is that we cannot account for the extensive and rapid diversity of life that has arisen since the different “kinds” of animals exited the Ark around 4500 years ago..

The CRS eKINDs research initiative was developed to serve as a catalyst, promoting research that addresses numerous questions pertaining to the post-Flood repopulation of the earth. These questions can be grouped into three general categories: 1) which organisms today are descended from the same created kind?, 2) what mechanisms are responsible for the astounding diversity seen within created kinds?, and 3) can we trace the natural history of various animal kinds as they dispersed from the Ark to repopulate the earth?

Identifying Created Kinds

There have been some initial attempts to estimate the number and biological distinctions of the created kinds. This research shows that more work needs to be done. The increasing volume of molecular data (i.e., DNA and protein sequence data) has the potential to augment previous studies, perhaps allowing for a clearer delineation of created kinds. In view of this, the eKINDS project is developing a new statistical tool that seeks to group species based on molecular similarities. A more detailed explanation of the methodology, with application to fungi, appears in a recent Creation Research Society Quarterly (O’Micks, 2017). When applied to humans and various vertebrate species, it has demonstrated that we are remarkably different from apes and other primates, as well as other mammals and birds (Lightner and Cserhati, 2019)

Mechanisms Underlying Diversity

The secular story attempts to account for life’s diversity using random mutation and natural selection. In a biblical model, life was originally created with the potential for diversity. God clearly designed life to be able to adapt to different environments and settings, enabling life to “fill the earth.” Such adaptation can involve a number of genetic mechanisms, including directed mutation, gene conversion, and epigenetics. As part of the eKINDS project, we hope to investigate these areas in more detail.

Tracing Natural History

Paradise kingfishers inspired Ernst Mayr to propose the founder effect decades ago. As part of the eKINDS project, this group of birds has also been examined in detail (Lightner and Ahlquist 2017). One conclusion from the eKINDS study is that evolutionists incorrectly assume animals do not choose environments where they are naturally best suited. Real world observation indicates otherwise. Thus, animals selecting a suitable environment (a reflection of the adaptive skills that God gave them), which at times may involve the founder effect, can increase the prevalence of adaptive traits in a way that evolutionists might attribute to natural selection.

Brown-headed paradise kingfisher (from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paradise_kingfisher)

In addition, morphological, behavioral, and molecular data of kingfishers was used to help us understand relationships within this group (Ahlquist and Lightner, 2018). This information was then used to develop preliminary hypotheses that accounts for the dispersal and adaptive radiation of this kind after the Flood. A similar study in landfowl (Galliformes) has been published as well (Ahlquist and Lightner, 2019, 2020 and 2021).

Would you like to join us?

  • Here are ways you could become involved in eKINDS research: · We need God’s help and guidance, so your prayers are greatly appreciated!
  • If you would like to designate a monetary gift towards this research, you can donate online at https://www.creationresearch.org/donate/.
  • If you have questions, feel free to contact us at crsvarc@crsvarc.com, by phone at 928.636.1153, or by mail at:
    • CRS Van Andel Creation Research Center 1 W. Firestorm Way #145 Glendale, AZ 85306
  • Are you a researcher interesting in exploring these topics with us? Contact us through one of the methods above to see if you can contribute to eKINDS research published in the CRSQ! 

Published eKINDS Research


Lightner, J.K. and J. Ahlquist. 2017. Founder events: Foundational in rapid post-Flood diversification. Creation Research Society Quarterly 53, no. 3:217-224.

O’Micks, J. 2017. Baraminology classification based on gene content similarity measurement. Creation Research Society Quarterly 54, no. 1:27-37.

Lightner, J.K., and K. Anderson. 2018. The CRS eKINDS research initiative: Where we have been and where we are headed from here. In Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Creationism, ed. J.H. Whitmore, pp. 185–190. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Creation Science Fellowship.

Ahlquist, J. and J. Lightner. 2018. Paradise Kingfishers (Tanysiptera spp.), the Founder Effect, and Creation Research. Creation Research Society Quarterly 55, no. 1:4-23.

Lightner, J.K. and M. Cserhati. 2019. The Uniqueness of Humans Is Clearly Demonstrated by the Gene-Content Statistical Baraminology Method. Creation Research Society Quarterly 55, no. 3:132-141.

Ahlquist, J. and J.K. Lightner. 2019. Strategies for More Clearly Delineating, Characterizing, and Inferring the Natural History of Baramins I: Establishing Baraminic Status, with Application to the Order Galliformes (Class: Aves). Creation Research Society Quarterly 56, no. 2:97-104.

Ahlquist, J. and J.K. Lightner. 2020. Strategies for More Clearly Delineating, Characterizing, and Inferring the Natural History of Baramins II: Evaluating Diversity, with Application to the Order Galliformes (Class: Aves) Creation Research Society Quarterly 57, no. 1:45-56.

Ahlquist, J. and J.K. Lightner. 2021. Strategies for More Clearly Delineating, Characterizing, and Inferring the Natural History of Baramins III: evaluating relationships and proposing post-Flood dispersal, with Application to the Order Galliformes (Class: Aves). Creation Research Society Quarterly 58, no. 2:113-128.

Lightner, J.K., and M. Cserhati. 2023. The uniqueness of ruminants (Ruminantia) among the even-toed ungulates (Artio­dactyla), Part I: Molecular baraminol­ogy studies. Creation Research Society Quarterly 59, no. 3:142–150.

Lightner, J.K. 2023. The uniqueness of ruminants (Ruminantia) among the even-toed ungulates (Artiod­actyla), Part II: Unique anatomical and physiological traits. Creation Research Society Quarterly 59, no. 4:200-206.