A Dam Breach Unlikely for the Origin of Grand Canyon
Michael J. Oard
Abstract The origin of the Grand Canyon is still being debated by uniformitarian and creation scientists. Two uniformitarian scientists have recently used pieces of previous research to suggest that the Grand Canyon was finally formed when the Kaibab Plateau was breached by water piping through limestone—a difficult task with little or no evidence. Several creation and uniformitarian scientists have recently defended the dam-breach hypothesis against published objections. These are reviewed, and another flaw is introduced: the absence of a huge cobble and boulder delta at the mouth of Grand Canyon. The Bidahochi Formation is interpreted as containing Lake Hopi bottom sediments, but most of its deposits are currently higher than its proposed elevation. Furthermore, the lacustrine interpretation is equivocal. Problems with the breach event are discussed. The late-Flood runoff erosion model still seems the best explanation.
A Catastrophic Plate Tectonics Explanation for Earth’s Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (Also Known as Superplumes)
Evan Arthur Navarro
Abstract This paper provides a hypothesis to account for the two Large Low-Shear-Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs) and discusses evidence supporting this hypothesis. These features are located in the lower mantle just above the core-mantle boundary and display strikingly low seismic-shear wave speed relative to adjacent rock. They are nearly antipodal to each other, with one lying roughly beneath Africa and the other beneath the central Pacific Ocean. While secular literature does not have an explanation for how these structures arose or even why they display such low seismic speeds, we postulate that LLSVPs are a direct consequence of catastrophic plate tectonic activity during the Genesis Flood. This paper posits that LLSVPs correspond to hot lower-mantle rock that was forcibly shoved aside by subducted lithospheric slab material as it reached the core-mantle boundary during the Flood. The large contrast in seismic speed between the LLSVP material and the surrounding rock is due primarily to the large difference in temperature. The apparent paradox of why these two LLSVPs, if their low seismic speed is due to high temperature and reduced density, did not rise to the surface millions of years ago is resolved by the realities that the Flood occurred only a few thousand years ago and that mean mantle viscosity returned quickly to its present value at the end of the cataclysm. Numerical simulations with the mantle dynamics code, terra, support this scenario.
Using Vardiman’s Young-Earth Ice Sheet Model and a Simple Computer Code to Estimate Annual Layer Thicknesses
Abstract Unfortunately, uniformitarian models of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets are currently much more sophisticated than creation models. In fact, creation researchers are about sixty years behind uniformitarian scientists in this area. There is a great need for creation researchers to develop more sophisticated ice sheet and ice core models. Creation Ice Age models predict that annual layers at given depths in the deep Greenland and Antarctic ice cores will be considerably thicker than predicted by uniformitarian models. Here I use Larry Vardiman’s 1993 analytical ice sheet model and a simple computer code to obtain estimates of annual layer thicknesses in Greenland’s Camp Century ice core. These results are admittedly of limited usefulness, but it is my hope that this paper will help lead to better creation-based ice sheet models. I also hope that it serves a pedagogical purpose in enabling future creation researchers to quickly grasp important ice sheet concepts and to avoid misconceptions.
Baraminic Classification of the Tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) among Reptiles Based on Whole-Genome K-mer Signature Comparison
Abstract The baraminic status of the tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus), the only extant species of the reptilian order Rhynchocephalia, is an intriguing question for creation science. This animal superficially resembles lizards in its anatomy, yet has special physical and genomic characteristics which make it discontinuous with all other reptiles. A previous morphological baraminology study strongly suggested that the tuatara belongs to its own distinct group. In this study, the genomic analysis of 61 reptile genomes using the whole-genome k-mer signature reinforces this conclusion.
Supernova Light Curves and Accelerated Decay
Abstract Neutrinos and antineutrinos are emitted in great quantity in supernova explosions. In a previous paper they were linked to a hypothetical acceleron field and the variations in this acceleron field as the blast reached earth were investigated as a cause for accelerated nuclear decays. In this paper, the nuclear decays, which are thought to be primarily decays of Nickel-56 and Cobalt-56, which power the light curves of supernovae are investigated. The half-lives and other properties of Nickel-56 and Cobalt-56 have been measured in the laboratory, and the theory of the ground state and other levels of these nuclei are investigated to see if they are sensitive to changes in the acceleron field. One cannot induce stars to explode, but supernovae are often observed in distant galaxies and their study may be used to infer what the possible behaviors are. Nuclear theory is examined to see what the characteristics of Ni-56 and Co-56 might be, including whether the ground states of these nuclei have a pairing gap in their energy states. The calculations indicate that Ni-56 has no pairing gap and the neutrons in Co-56 have no pairing gap. There is a weak pairing gap for protons in Co-56. The implications of this for whether accelerated decay would result for these nuclei, and hence whether accelerated decay would be compatible with the observed light curves if the acceleron mechanism is adopted.
The Tôle˘dôt Structure of Genesis
Michael A. Harbin
Abstract For the past couple of centuries, critical scholars have argued that the differences between Genesis 1 and 2 indicate that they are from two different sources which are contradictory. Those who understand that the biblical accounts actually describe God’s creation of the cosmos see them as complementary, but still have encountered issues with regard to how they fit together. This study argues that a critical factor is the transition verse of Gen 2:4 hinging on the key Hebrew word tôlĕdôt, a term which has been difficult to translate. Drawing on the increasingly accepted understanding that the term is part of a technical phrase which should be understood as “this is what became of” as well as the generally accepted observation that this phrase serves as a structural indicator for the entire book, the study proposes that the initial creation account is a preface to the overall book. It then demonstrates that by showing how the phrase ties together the various sections of the book demonstrate sequentially what became of the creation which God proclaimed as very good (Gen 1:21). As such it provided a critical foundation for the embryo nation of Israel at Mt. Sinai where Moses shared God’s revelation that the people had been called for a purpose, which would ultimately lead to redemption of the entire world. Seeing the book as a carefully crafted unit built on the tôlĕdôt phrase highlights the importance of the creation account preface not only to explain origins to us as well as the nation of Israel, but the nature of the world in which we live.