Investigation of Several Alleged Paleosols in the Northern Rocky Mountains Part I: Background and Methods
Peter Klevberg, Richard Bandy, Michael J. OardThe existence of paleosols, “fossil soils,” is a popular argument of anticreationists. Paleosols have been reported from several locations east of the Rocky Mountains in northern Montana, U.S.A., and southern Alberta, Canada. These alleged paleosols have been correlated between erosional remnants corresponding to the Flaxville Plain, an extensive surficial planar erosion surface, and dated by correlation to magnetic reversals. A chronology of 2.6 million years has been presented in the literature, with multiple glaciations, paleogeographic and paleoclimatologic reconstructions. The first part of this series presents background, methods, and a description of field sites where these alleged paleosols are found, including field data. The second part will present laboratory data and a discussion of field and laboratory data from both the traditional and diluvial perspectives.
Was Charles Darwin a Racist?
It is widely acknowledged that Darwinism contributed to the problem of nineteenth and twentieth-century racism. It is sometimes claimed, however, that Darwin himself was not a racist but rather that others misused and even misquoted his writings. In this paper I explore Darwin’s own views as recorded in his own writings. Darwin clearly held beliefs that today would be considered blatantly racist. It also is true that his writings made a major contribution to the problem of racism and were widely used to support racism. Darwin’s conclusions were in stark contrast to the historical Christian biblical view that all humans are siblings, descendants of the first humans Adam and Eve, who were created about six thousand years ago.
The Ultrastructure of Lichen Cells Supports Creation, not Macroevolution A Photo Essay and Literature Review—Part 1
(A Van Andel Creation Research Center Report)
by Mark H. Armitage and George F. HoweIn this two-part article (our fifth lichen paper) we show that the cellular ultrastructure of lichen provides evidence favoring design and direct creation. Our hope here, as with the other lichen papers, is that the readers’ knowledge of the Creator and their esteem for His handiwork will be enhanced by the study of lichens.
Muscle Evolution Is a Major Problem for Neo-Darwinism: A Review
Muscle has a structure that is irreducibly complex and shows no evidence of progressive evolution when a comparison is made between different animals. The skeletal muscles in a bee are little different in anatomy and function than those in a human. Muscle in all life-forms is so similar that it requires training and a good microscope to tell the difference. It appears reasonable to conclude that organisms in each kind were endowed with their own well-designed muscle tissues.