Lithification is important to diluvial geology and the mineral industry, especially petroleum. Lithification can be used to determine the amount of eroded overburden, which we apply to North Central Montana. There are also five other ways to determine erosion and, using these, secular scientists have estimated immense continental erosion. We delve into the variables affecting lithification, emphasizing diagenesis and, in particular, mechanical and chemical compaction of sandstone. Despite many difficulties, the study of lithification has produced some data useful in inferring burial depths for sandstones from compaction microtextures.