Supernova Driven Accelerated Decay
Confronts the Evidence
Supernova explosions emit debris including neutrinos and antineutrinos. In a previous paper these were linked to a hypothetical acceleron field and the variations in this acceleron field as the blast reached Earth were investigated as a cause for accelerated nuclear decays. In this paper some of the collateral reactions which would result are investigated to see if they are consistent with known things. This includes the known detections which are associated with Supernova 1987A and other supernovae. Also, the rate of supernova detections on Earth is considered. One cannot induce stars to explode, so we must be content with what has been observed. We find that there are no observations available at present which would rule out the existence of the acceleron field and the associated particle, as long as it has a mass within a specified range. Also, the recent discovery of uranium’s presence in the spectra of some galactic halo stars is discussed in the context of the acceleron mechanism. A separate paper will discuss the dependence of supernova light curves on the nuclear decay of relevant nuclei.
Magnetic Orbital Decay of Solar Type Binaries: Their Gyrochronology
This study is the final installment of the previously CRS-funded projects, involving an observational study of the apparent age of the universe as indicated by gyrochronology. It involves estimating ages due to magnetic orbital decay of solar type binaries. The scenario used is in a time dilation scenario applying the RATE results (accelerated radiometric aging). Three CRSQ papers have resulted from this study. It was also presented twice at summer Creation Research Society meetings. Additionally, it has been presented at secular meetings of the International Astronomical Union general assembly (IAUGA) and was well received by individual astronomers. In the 2018 IAUGA in Vienna Austria, we reported in a poster paper a compendium of 200 binaries. We conclude this study here by presenting recently analyzed binaries to the previous study, publishing the full group of binaries directing these results through the Creation Research Society Quarterly. These give strong evidence that the age of universe even in a time dilated scenario is grossly exaggerated and amounts to only 0.3% of the accepted age of the universe to the secular astronomer. Here, an age is computed for each binary, ∆t, based on the difference in the current orbital period and the proposed initial period, ∆P and the rate of orbital decay, dP/dt, ∆t= -∆P/(dP/dt). The result is that the evolution of solar type binaries, from formation to the present configuration, average more than two magnitudes faster than theory suggests. Further implications are explored.
A Correct Understanding of
Symmetry-Breaking in Chiral Organic Synthesis
Charles A. McCombs
In recent years, many scientists have referenced the work of mathematicians D.K. Kondepudi and G.W. Nelson who claim that symmetry breaking states are extremely sensitive to small symmetry breaking interactions, and small external influences can play a role in the selection of one outcome from other possible outcomes. Kondepudi and Nelson have previously concluded that the energy barrier for selecting one outcome over the other should be on the order of 10-15–10-17 kT based on their earlier calculations. Kondepudi and Nelson then studied mathematically the rate equations from a hypothetical chemical reaction to see if symmetry breaking leading to bifurcation could create new homochirality in that chemical reaction. Although symmetry occurs in some chemical reactions that produce chirality, the breaking of that symmetry as it relates to forming new homochirality, the alleged formation of only one outcome and the bifurcation they propose occurs contrary to the chemical literature. For this reason, it was necessary to evaluate their claims because of the potential impact of their discovery if verifiable. Unfortunately, it had to be concluded that the Kondepudi and Nelson math equations for symmetry breaking are not relevant to chemical systems, and their claims for creating new homochirality were only assumed, never substantiated.
The Distribution of Genetic Variants in the
Human Genome Reflects Created Diversity
Those who believe the record of Genesis account for genetic differences by two mechanisms: created diversity and mutations. For the Y chromosome, mutations appear to be sufficient to explain worldwide Y chromosome diversity. Also, for rare autosomal variants, mutations appear to explain their origins within a few thousand years. However, for common autosomal variants, creationists have proposed that common genetic variants represent created diversity which God put into Adam’s genome. Evolutionists oppose this view, insisting that all genetic variation is due to mutations accumulated over millions of years. To test these opposing interpretations of the origin of genetic variation, the pattern of distribution of genetic variants across the human genome was determined to see whether the variants on Y chromosome and the autosomes have different mechanisms of origin. This investigation finds that the concentration of common genetic variants found on the Y chromosomes in the 1000 Genome database is 183 per million bases versus a mean of 2,958 per million bases found on the autosomes, indicating that the Y chromosomes lack created variants. The common variants on the X chromosome fall in an intermediate position of 1,890 per million bases, an indication that some created variants are carried on the X chromosome. Consistent with a mutational origin for all of the Y chromosome common variants and a created origin for most of the autosomal common variants, these findings provide an independent line of evidence supporting recent created diversity as the explanation for most human genetic variation.
A Computer Model of Mutation Accumulation on Y Chromosomes Suggests Events Recorded in Genesis Produced Common Variants
Genetic variation on Y chromosomes is due to mutations accumulated as men have descended from Noah. Many of the Y chromosome common variants found today were produced by historical events causing large demographic changes when the world population was small. To gain understanding of how the ancient events described in Genesis following the Flood may have produced these common variants, a computer model was built. Output from this model suggests that this common variant pattern is the result of tragic demographic events, including the Babel dispersion and the Ice Age, resulting in population collapse and opportunistic male reproduction. High mutation rates in long-lived patriarchs may also have contributed to increasing common variants on Y chromosomes. The model most closely matches the common variant pattern when parameters are adjusted to reflect the historic record of Genesis. The population expands rapidly with few deaths until 560 men with their families disperse from Babel. The model further suggests that patriarch profiles of mutations might be found on the Y chromosomes of all men today.