Five major arguments are put forth that challenge the K-Pg boundary as the Flood/post-Flood boundary: (1) the presence of the Paleocene Whopper Sand in the Gulf of Mexico, (2) the tremendous amount of Cenozoic sediment deposited globally, (3) the fact that the thickest and most extensive coal seams are found in Cenozoic sediments globally, (4) the identification of uninterrupted carbonate deposition across the K-Pg boundary upward through Miocene strata across North Africa and the Middle East, including Iraq, and (5) the tremendous amount of rapid ocean crust/seafloor spreading that continued right across the K-Pg boundary and through much of the Cenozoic up to the Pliocene, with no indication of a significant change in velocity. These data collectively establish that the Flood/post Flood boundary had to have been much higher in the Cenozoic rock record, at least as high as the top of the Miocene. The Tertiary (Paleogene and Neogene) likely represents the receding-water phase of the Flood. The results of this paper also call into question much of the claimed paleontological evidence for a K-Pg Flood/post-Flood boundary, including the evolution-saltation process that has been recently proposed.
Ophiolites are a significant puzzle to both uniformitarian and Flood geologists. Currently thought to represent sections of lower crust and upper mantle thrust onto the continents during subduction by a process known as “obduction,” ophiolites are found around the planet. Uncertainties in uniformitarian explanations are multiplied by the distinct parameters of biblical history, and no Flood model has yet provided a comprehensive explanation.
Groundwater sapping, or simply sapping, is a slow process of erosion by which some canyons form. It is thought to take tens of thousands to millions of years; however, several classic examples of sapping are found to have been eroded by overland water transport. Examples of these include Box Canyon and Malad Gorge in south central Idaho, basalt canyons in Hawaii, canyons in the Atacama Desert and parts of the Colorado Plateau, including the Grand Canyon area. Overland flow can erode canyons rapidly, in harmony with the biblical timescale.