For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them...
      
 
 
 

Table I. The mean fertility x and the optimal fertility x0 in plant, animal and human population

    No.1    Species and source of data    n2    x    x0


    1    Oat (Avena sativa)    Sample 1    99    36.2    646

    2        Sample 2    112    38.0    ¥3

    3        Sample 3    119    45.9    ¥

    4    Wheat (Triticum aestivum)    Sample 1    116    6.8    ¥

    5        Sample 2    120    20.2    74.4

    6    Grouse (Lagopus scoticus)        153    7.52    ¥

    7    Partridge (Perdix perdix)        3916    14.6    ¥

    8    Wood duck (Aix sponsa)        63    13.8    ¥

    9    White-bellied swift (Apus melba)        885    2.56    5.87

    10    Black swift (Apus apus)        171    1.99    3.09

    11            125    2.0    5.3

    12            83    2.16    14.1

    13    Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)    Early broods    3516    4.48    7.84

    14        Late broods    1150    3.89    5.06

    15    Great tit (Parus major)    Early broods    431    7.21    14.2

    16        Late broods    196    5.69    8.43

    17        Early broods    235    9.06    ¥

    18    Blue tit (P. caeruleus)        181    10.4    20.1

    19    Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus)        1104    2.73    5.20

    20    Sheep (Ovis sp.)    1-year-old ewes    515834    1.32    5.044

    21        Older ewes        2.93

    22    Human (Homo sapiens)    Caucasians of the    >10005    1.0125    3.27

            USA 1929–1931            

    23        England and Wales            8.83

            1956–1960

1References for items: 1–5: Data obtained by the author in 1993; 6: Jenkins et al. 1963, quoted from Wynne-Edwards 1964; 7: Lack 19476; 8: Leopold 19516; 9: Lack & Arn 19476; 10: Lack & Lack 19516; 11: Perrins & Lack 1964; 12: Data obtained by the author in 1999; 13–14: Lack 19486; 15–17: Lack 19506; Lack et al. 1957; 18: Lack et al. 1957; 19: Wright & Eaton 19296; 20–21: Bradford 1987; Stein 1987; 22–23: Stern 1965; Kanaev 1968; Strandskov & Ondina 19476; Allee et al. 19496; Lègarè 1972.

2n is sample size.

3¥signifies that as the fertility increases, reproductive success (RS) as a function of u(x) is not maximized at its definite value but increases infinitely, so that it is impossible to calculate the fertility optimum x0.

4Values for both classes of ewes together.

5Values for both classes of humans together.

6Quoted from Lack 1954.

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