Copyright © 1971,
2000 by the Creation Research Society. All rights reserved.
Volume 7, Number 4
The Cyclical Black Shales
Walter G. Peters, M.S.Ed.
Black shales of the Pennsylvania
System of west central Illinois were examined in a paleoecological study
using micro-radiography (X-ray) and photographic techniques. Over 80
different fossil varieties were tentatively identified, including a
proposed new conodont species, Metalonchodina magnidentatus,
Peters, a small Pennsylvanian Onychophore (?), several freshwater Algae.
Study methods included gross
and macrophotography, microscopic examination of thin shale chips, and
photomicrophotographic inspection of X-rays of shale samples. The radio-photomicrographic
technique supplemented and bypassed the usual practice of crushing and
chemically disaggregating the shale to extract the microfossils. Structural
details could be observed in fossil elements in X-ray negatives rotated
on the stage of the polarizing microscope set at or near crossed nicols.
Cyclical deposition was
indicated by the structural details of the shale as well as by the virtually
mutually exclusive occurrence of foraminifera and conodonts in successively
alternating bedding planes and black shale matrix. Rapid transport and
burial was implied from the following observations: Orbiculoidea shells
packed into lenses up to one inch thick; microlaminations apparently
interrupted by small coal balls; and the distorted bedding, both at
the bottom and the top of the shale member.
All of the reported observations
strongly support the Biblical tidal interpretation of fossil deposition
Human Footprints In Rocks
Wilbert H. Rusch, Sr.
Mention in scientific circles
of so-called human footprints in any rocks results in raised eyebrows
and general skepticism that such can be found. Among creationists considerable
misplaced enthusiasm is expressed quite often. However, when one attempts
a systematic study of the subject of human footprints in rock layers,
evidence can be considered in three categories: (1) undisputed human
footprints preserved in rocks, (2) documented examples of footprints
that have been drawn or carved in rocks, and (3) an open category of
unresolved "finds". Evidences for each of these three categories
are discussed at length and numerous illustrations of observed materials
A Geo-Ecological Explanation
Of The Fossil Record Based Upon Divine Creation
Randall Hedtke, B.S.
The fossil series is discussed
and an attempt is made to explain the distribution of index fossils
in various strata. Factors such as proximity to early bodies of water,
preflood population size, and morphology are used to predict the relative
fossil production potential of various living forms. Predictions based
on these factors show a good fit with the observed order of fossils
in the geologic column. This provides a non-evolutionary framework for
geology. Absence of larger or more "complex" types from deeper
fossil strata is attributed to unavailability of rocks rather than expanded
evolutionary development. Inaccessibility and metamorphosis make deeper
strata unavailable and account for the general absence of fossils from
such complex creatures as mammals. The available fossil record considered
together with the available rock record explains the geologic "column"
without recourse to evolutionary speculation or expanded uniformitarian
time scales. This model is based upon the concept of creation and the
The Mesa Basalt Of The Northwestern
Stuart E. Nevins, B.S.
Probably the most remarkable
basalt unit of the stratigraphic record is the late Cenozoic (Pliocene
or Pleistocene) Mesa basalt of the northwestern United States. Various
lines of evidence show that several occurrences of medium to light gray
porous-textured olivine basalt in Oregon, northeastern California, northwestern
Nevada and southwestern Idaho apparently are the preserved remnants
of a single, regionally extensive lava flow. The thickness of the flow
averages only 30 feet and the areal extent must have exceeded 100,000
square miles. It is therefore the world's largest known lava flow representing
a single volcanic event of catastrophic magnitude.
Several problems for uniformitarian
geology is presented by the Mesa basalt are discussed. Widely divergent
dates on various portions of the basalt seem to invalidate the potassium-argon
Because the Mesa basalt
and many other late and middle Cenozoic basalts were deposited in a
subaerial environment, while pre-cenozoic lava flows were usually submarine,
it is suspected that the Mesa basalt and other late and middle Cenozoic
basalts flowed after the Noachian Flood. This inference is supported
by the observation that pre-Cenozoic flood strata (widespread dolostone,
bedded chert, black shale, coal and graywacke) are uncommon in the late
and middle Cenozoic.
Dooyeweerd And Creationism
Sam T. Wolfe
Current interest in the
Cosmonomic philosophy of Herman Dooyeweerd warrants an analysis of this
system in terms of special creationism. Dooyeweerd's views are explained
and their implications for biology are explored. It is suggested that
a consistent development of Dooyeweerd's "non-evolutionary religious
root" in science should lead to nothing less than Biblical Creationism.
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