Volume 6, Number 1
Does The Science Of Genetics And Molecular Biology Really Give Evidence
By reference to beans, roses and corn, variation is shown to be limited and not unlimited as Darwin thought. Mutations are generally harmful. Even assuming a 1% advantage, which no mutation reported has actually shown, rate of accumulation of mutations in a species is so slow that it would take about 1,000,000 years for a species population to become uniform for one mutation. This makes them ineffective even in microevolution as means of accumulating the constant features distinguishing species. The giraffe is used to illustrate this fact.
Also biological species show remarkable variation in chromosome number and form. Translocations and inversions occur rarely and spontaneously in species populations. Most translocations in the fruit fly, Drosophila, are either invariable when homozygous or cause a reduction in fertility in one or both the sexes. In plants, homozygous translocations are usually normal in fertility and vigor. However, none of them are more vigorous than the normal or standard type. Accordingly there is simply no way for them to become established as homozygotes in all the individuals of the population. Experimentally produced polyploids are variable in chromosome number due to quadrivalent formation and so their offspring have a variable in chromosome number. Also they are reduced in fertility, so could not become established in nature, since natural selection would operate against them.
Some idea of the complexity of the DNA-RNA system is given. This remarkable interlocking system could not be the result of chance variation. Also reference to work with bacteriophage and tobacco mosaic virus shows that these organisms will not stand the slightest change in the nucleotide bases or their order in the very long and complex DNA molecule. Only the genius of a remarkably intelligent Being we worship as God could have designed such an efficient yet intricate system.
The Form And Structure Of
Creationists and evolutionists have vastly different concepts of comparative anatomy. The evolutionist holds that the more closely basic types of living things resemble each other physically in body line or chemistry the closer is their blood relationship. In contrast, the creationist holds that because the Creator spoke all the basic types into existence from the dust of the earth on Days Three, Five, and Six of the literal Creation week, there is no genetic relationship between them. Any similarity in anatomy, for instance, is due to one Creator with a master plan.
Regarding man, the truth of the literal Genesis account of his origin is attested by the Lord Jesus Christ in Matthew 19:4-6. That the Creator ceased at the end of Creation week to form new basic types of organisms is stated in Genesis 2:2 and verified in nature. The discontinuity among both living and fossil forms constitutes real evidence of the creation of basic kinds. According to the natural record, from the day of their creation, all Genesis kinds have continued to bring forth only after their kinds. Variation has never been known to accomplish more than the production of a new variety of a basic type already in existence.
The history of the so-called Law of Recapitulation is briefly examined from its inception down to Ernst Haeckel who finalized it as the "Biogenetic Law." Because of many short-comings discovered since Haeckel's day, the idea of "Recapitulation" is no longer generally recognized as a "Law" and some modern texts on evolution omit all reference to the topic. Some post-1960 textbooks, however, still present the illustrations of supposed embryological stages by Ernst Haeckel as support for the theory of evolution.
Original criticisms of the honesty of Haeckel's arguments and illustrations are presented here, based on translated excerpts from the original German reviews by L. Rutimeyer, professor of science at the University of Basel, and early critic of Haeckel. These original sources indicate that Haeckel's woodcut series illustrating the ova and embryo were fraudulent. Articles by Wilhelm His, Sr., embryologist and anatomist of the University of Leipzig, also demonstrate that Haeckel's works contained distortions that were evidently perpetrated with the direct intent to deceive.
It is suggested that future editions of science texts eliminate all use of Haeckel's questionable materials. Perpetuating these distorted drawings as true representations of the embryos in question and as having weight in the argument for evolution is certainly regrettable.
Research On The Classic Joggins
A re-examination of the Carboniferous section of Joggins, Nova Scotia, does not support the prevailing theory that the petrified trees and coal deposits are in situ. Ten evidences that support the allochthonous emplacement of the trees and rapid sedimentation include the absence of soil zone, unusual plant fossils within the hollow stumps, abundant presence of the marine tubeworm, Spirorbis, and polystrate trees. Seven observations that favor a similar interpretation for the Stigmaria "roots" associated with coal include the negative geotropism of the appendages, isolated sections of Stigmaria with radiating "rootlets," unusual orientations of Stigmaria and appendages, and remarkable similarity of Stigmaria to the creeping forms of Lycopodium. A tentative model of allochthonous organic sedimentation is proposed.
Chromosomal Changes - Mechanism
Polyploidy (an increase in the number of whole chromosome sets) is defined, illustrated, and explained. Mechanisms of polyploidy are discussed and the effects are examined for any possible role in progressive evolution. Although polyploidy may introduce changes in size, osmotic pressure, fertility, and other factors, these same changes are often unfavorable to the polyploid and are not the kinds of changes required for major evolutionary steps.
Aneuploidy (addition or subtraction of a single chromosome) is shown to be the basis of several disorders in the human body. Rather than adding extra genetic material from which to evolve new traits, aneuploidy is usually harmful to the species, and not creative in its effect.
Rearrangements of chromosome parts (translocations and inversions) are also seen to be generally harmful.
Although the various types of chromosomal changes may produce some striking modifications in the organism, they can hardly be regarded as important evolutionary mechanisms.
The Empire Mountains - A
Geology of the Empire Mountains of Arizona is briefly reviewed. Evidence indicating thrust faults at other sites (Santa Rita Mountains and Tortolita Mountains) are presented. The Empire Mountain "thrust fault" has been analyzed for usual marks of tectonic activity. Negative results are reported. Therefore, it is concluded that no such "thrust" has occurred in the Empire Range, and that Permian (Paleozoic) rocks lying above are actually younger than the cretaceous (Mesozoic) layer beneath! Implications of these inferences for uniformitarian geology and evolution theory are evaluated. It is suggested that presence or absence of thrust faulting be judged hereafter solely upon the physical criteria, aside from any evolutionary preconceptions.
The Concept Of Homology
The concept of homology, in the historical sense, was defined in The Origin of Species by Darwin as "recognition of fundamental plan in animals and plants is due to descent with modification." Inheritance of successive slight modifications from a common ancestor was very likely a reaction to the extreme view of the immutability of species held in Darwin's times. This paper seeks to show that it is neither hopeless nor unscientific to attribute a common plan or a basic pattern of a Creator to the similarities shown by the forelimbs of vertebrates.
A review of recent and widely adopted high school textbooks in biology shows that homology in the Darwinian sense is still being offered as "proof" of evolution. Recognition of the rapid inroad of evolutionary teaching into our educational system to the complete suppression of creationist viewpoints calls upon scientist and non-scientist alike to lead in a return of the data of the natural sciences with creation guidelines.
Radiocarbon And Potassium-Argon
Dating In The Light Of New Discoveries In Cosmic Rays
Potassium-argon dating method is totally dependent upon the assumption that the Ar-36/A-40 ratio in the atmosphere has been invariant throughout geological time. Having shown this earlier, the author now offers evidence that argon-36 may well have been building up from zero since Creation. The strongest such evidence now comes from startling new data on cosmic rays surveyed in Science and Technology, November, 1968. Also, these same data serve to confirm the author's earlier analysis showing that the radiocarbon clock points to Biblical Creation.