Copyright © 1969,
2000 by the Creation Research Society. All rights reserved.
Volume 6, Number 1
Does The Science Of Genetics And Molecular Biology Really Give Evidence
Walter E. Lammerts, Ph.D.
By reference to beans, roses
and corn, variation is shown to be limited and not unlimited as Darwin
thought. Mutations are generally harmful. Even assuming a 1% advantage,
which no mutation reported has actually shown, rate of accumulation
of mutations in a species is so slow that it would take about 1,000,000
years for a species population to become uniform for one mutation. This
makes them ineffective even in microevolution as means of accumulating
the constant features distinguishing species. The giraffe is used to
illustrate this fact.
Also biological species
show remarkable variation in chromosome number and form. Translocations
and inversions occur rarely and spontaneously in species populations.
Most translocations in the fruit fly, Drosophila, are either invariable
when homozygous or cause a reduction in fertility in one or both the
sexes. In plants, homozygous translocations are usually normal in fertility
and vigor. However, none of them are more vigorous than the normal or
standard type. Accordingly there is simply no way for them to become
established as homozygotes in all the individuals of the population.
Experimentally produced polyploids are variable in chromosome number
due to quadrivalent formation and so their offspring have a variable
in chromosome number. Also they are reduced in fertility, so could not
become established in nature, since natural selection would operate
Some idea of the complexity
of the DNA-RNA system is given. This remarkable interlocking system
could not be the result of chance variation. Also reference to work
with bacteriophage and tobacco mosaic virus shows that these organisms
will not stand the slightest change in the nucleotide bases or their
order in the very long and complex DNA molecule. Only the genius of
a remarkably intelligent Being we worship as God could have designed
such an efficient yet intricate system.
The Form And Structure Of
Frank L. Marsh, Ph.D.
Creationists and evolutionists
have vastly different concepts of comparative anatomy. The evolutionist
holds that the more closely basic types of living things resemble each
other physically in body line or chemistry the closer is their blood
relationship. In contrast, the creationist holds that because the Creator
spoke all the basic types into existence from the dust of the earth
on Days Three, Five, and Six of the literal Creation week, there is
no genetic relationship between them. Any similarity in anatomy, for
instance, is due to one Creator with a master plan.
Regarding man, the truth
of the literal Genesis account of his origin is attested by the Lord
Jesus Christ in Matthew 19:4-6. That the Creator ceased at the end of
Creation week to form new basic types of organisms is stated in Genesis
2:2 and verified in nature. The discontinuity among both living and
fossil forms constitutes real evidence of the creation of basic kinds.
According to the natural record, from the day of their creation, all
Genesis kinds have continued to bring forth only after their kinds.
Variation has never been known to accomplish more than the production
of a new variety of a basic type already in existence.
Wilbert H. Rusch, Sr.
The history of the so-called
Law of Recapitulation is briefly examined from its inception down to
Ernst Haeckel who finalized it as the "Biogenetic Law." Because
of many short-comings discovered since Haeckel's day, the idea of "Recapitulation"
is no longer generally recognized as a "Law" and some modern
texts on evolution omit all reference to the topic. Some post-1960 textbooks,
however, still present the illustrations of supposed embryological stages
by Ernst Haeckel as support for the theory of evolution.
Original criticisms of the
honesty of Haeckel's arguments and illustrations are presented here,
based on translated excerpts from the original German reviews by L.
Rutimeyer, professor of science at the University of Basel, and early
critic of Haeckel. These original sources indicate that Haeckel's woodcut
series illustrating the ova and embryo were fraudulent. Articles by
Wilhelm His, Sr., embryologist and anatomist of the University of Leipzig,
also demonstrate that Haeckel's works contained distortions that were
evidently perpetrated with the direct intent to deceive.
It is suggested that future
editions of science texts eliminate all use of Haeckel's questionable
materials. Perpetuating these distorted drawings as true representations
of the embryos in question and as having weight in the argument for
evolution is certainly regrettable.
Research On The Classic Joggins
Harold Coffin, Ph.D.
A re-examination of the
Carboniferous section of Joggins, Nova Scotia, does not support the
prevailing theory that the petrified trees and coal deposits are in
situ. Ten evidences that support the allochthonous emplacement of
the trees and rapid sedimentation include the absence of soil zone,
unusual plant fossils within the hollow stumps, abundant presence of
the marine tubeworm, Spirorbis, and polystrate trees. Seven observations
that favor a similar interpretation for the Stigmaria "roots"
associated with coal include the negative geotropism of the appendages,
isolated sections of Stigmaria with radiating "rootlets,"
unusual orientations of Stigmaria and appendages, and remarkable similarity
of Stigmaria to the creeping forms of Lycopodium. A tentative
model of allochthonous organic sedimentation is proposed.
Chromosomal Changes - Mechanism
John W. Klotz, Ph.D.
Polyploidy (an increase
in the number of whole chromosome sets) is defined, illustrated, and
explained. Mechanisms of polyploidy are discussed and the effects are
examined for any possible role in progressive evolution. Although polyploidy
may introduce changes in size, osmotic pressure, fertility, and other
factors, these same changes are often unfavorable to the polyploid and
are not the kinds of changes required for major evolutionary steps.
Aneuploidy (addition or
subtraction of a single chromosome) is shown to be the basis of several
disorders in the human body. Rather than adding extra genetic material
from which to evolve new traits, aneuploidy is usually harmful to the
species, and not creative in its effect.
Rearrangements of chromosome
parts (translocations and inversions) are also seen to be generally
Although the various types
of chromosomal changes may produce some striking modifications in the
organism, they can hardly be regarded as important evolutionary mechanisms.
The Empire Mountains - A
Clifford L. Burdick, Ph.D.
and Harold Slusher
Geology of the Empire Mountains
of Arizona is briefly reviewed. Evidence indicating thrust faults at
other sites (Santa Rita Mountains and Tortolita Mountains) are presented.
The Empire Mountain "thrust fault" has been analyzed for usual
marks of tectonic activity. Negative results are reported. Therefore,
it is concluded that no such "thrust" has occurred in the
Empire Range, and that Permian (Paleozoic) rocks lying above are actually
younger than the cretaceous (Mesozoic) layer beneath! Implications of
these inferences for uniformitarian geology and evolution theory are
evaluated. It is suggested that presence or absence of thrust faulting
be judged hereafter solely upon the physical criteria, aside from any
The Concept Of Homology
Russell Artist, Ph.D.
The concept of homology,
in the historical sense, was defined in The Origin of Species
by Darwin as "recognition of fundamental plan in animals and plants
is due to descent with modification." Inheritance of successive
slight modifications from a common ancestor was very likely a reaction
to the extreme view of the immutability of species held in Darwin's
times. This paper seeks to show that it is neither hopeless nor unscientific
to attribute a common plan or a basic pattern of a Creator to the similarities
shown by the forelimbs of vertebrates.
A review of recent and widely
adopted high school textbooks in biology shows that homology in the
Darwinian sense is still being offered as "proof" of evolution.
Recognition of the rapid inroad of evolutionary teaching into our educational
system to the complete suppression of creationist viewpoints calls upon
scientist and non-scientist alike to lead in a return of the data of
the natural sciences with creation guidelines.
Radiocarbon And Potassium-Argon
Dating In The Light Of New Discoveries In Cosmic Rays
Potassium-argon dating method
is totally dependent upon the assumption that the Ar-36/A-40 ratio in
the atmosphere has been invariant throughout geological time. Having
shown this earlier, the author now offers evidence that argon-36 may
well have been building up from zero since Creation. The strongest such
evidence now comes from startling new data on cosmic rays surveyed in
Science and Technology, November, 1968. Also, these same data serve
to confirm the author's earlier analysis showing that the radiocarbon
clock points to Biblical Creation.
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