Copyright © 1967,
2000 by the Creation Research Society. All rights reserved.
Volume 4, Number 1
Ararat - The Mother Of Mountains
Clifford Burdick, Ph.D.
This article presents some
of the observations made during an expedition to Mt. Ararat sponsored
by the Archaeological Research foundation of New York. Eastern Turkey
consists of a relatively barren undeveloped area. Tectonically it is
very active, and unstable structurally. The region has been folded,
faulted, and intruded with basic types of volcanic rock, such as andesite
and basalt. Mt. Ararat is 17,000 feet high, and at its greatest height
perhaps measured nearer 20,000 feet.
Evidently the cover rocks
were Paleozoic and Mesozoic limestone, and in places like Mt. Ararat
were domed up by rising magma which burst through channels along fault
During the Flood period
at least three blankets of basaltic or andesitic lava were extruded
over the original Ararat which may have only been about 10,000 to 12,000
feet high originally.
Much of the lava is in rounded
blocks called pillow lava, having a conchoidal appearance indicating
it flowed out from the fractures while under water. After subsidence
of the flood waters, almost the whole north-east side of the mountain
blew up forming the Ahora gulch. Rock fragments and ash from this eruption
cover about 100 square miles.
Greater Ararat is covered
with an ice cap down to the 14,000 foot level. This cap is hundreds
of feet thick and divides into 12 "fingers" or glaciers.
An analysis of five rock
samples is given and also a list of fossils found by Abich.
DNA: Its History And Potential
Duane T. Gish, Ph.D.
A brief history of the discovery
of nucleic acid is given.
Specificity of DNA synthesis
is amazing and the sequence of amino acids in proteins as a result of
DNA coding is most precise. Rather than being the master chemical, DNA
is the servant of the cell. Thus its operation is repressed by the cell
Reasons for not being carried
away by false hope of altering genes controlling our own body and mental
traits are given, most important of which is the lack of specificity
of any irradiation or chemical mutagen. These all tend to be random
in their effect. Thus we cannot "tell" a nitrate ion which
of about 2500 adenine bases it should change to guanine.
As we continue to learn
more of the complexity of the DNA-RNA system we should be ever more
impressed by Psalm 139:14, "Man is fearfully and wonderfully made."
Surely such a complexly integrated system could only have been created
by a wisdom far superior to our own. Unbelieving man, willfully stubborn,
prefers to believe this marvelous system could have evolved from properties
inherent in the neutron. How much more reasonable to accept the clear
proclamation "In the beginning God created . . ."
Some Molecular Approaches
Wayne Frair, Ph.D.
A method for studying the
proteins of various turtles is given, based essentially on production
of antiserums by injection of turtle blood into rabbits or chickens.
When mixed with serial dilutions of serum from various species of turtles,
varying degrees of turbidity or precipitation are obtained. These results
are shown to have a definite taxonomic value and do not support the
present widely-held position that snapping turtles belong to a separate
family related to the Kinosternidae, but rather are in the Emydid family
A method of comparing DNA
of various species by studying the amount of pairing of DNA strands
in agar in relation to a standard "reference" DNA is described.
Since DNA consists of an "alphabet" of only four letters,
until we can learn to read the "words" made by sequences of
any three of them, it would seem that more progress in unraveling molecular
taxonomy can be made by studying proteins, built from an "alphabet"
of twenty letters or amino-acids. Rather than use evolutionary presuppositions,
this research proceeds from the working assumption that the world of
life is to be viewed as having arisen from certain stem organisms or
"kinds" which in most cases need to be elucidated.
DNA Studies In Relation To
Creation Concepts: The New Biology, Based On Molecular Structure, Shows
No Proof Of Evolution
John J. Grebe, D.Sc.
Finding no evidence for
evolution in the DNA code, a new search is on for "the origin and
evolution of the genetic mechanism." DNA, after all, is basic to
all life. Evolutionists had a rude awakening when the fundamental nature
of the DNA code, that defines and directs the inheritance of each living
organism, proved to be equally large and complex for all genetic kinds.
Statistics now show that the evolutionary theory has been postulated
against ridiculous odds. "God does not throw dice" was the
conclusion of Einstein about all this, and now this is spelled out in
detail. Immutability of the kinds of animals and plants is conceded
by those specialists who should know. Man's hopes cannot refute God's
word. Faith and revelation are also required in the great new discoveries
of Nature's laws. The latest supposed "proof" of evolution
is contradictory, internally.
The Evolution Of Complex
Organic Compounds From Simpler Chemical Compounds: Is It Thermodynamically
And Kinetically Possible?
Emmett L. Williams, Jr.,
Present sources of energy
for conversion of inorganic molecules to various organic molecules are
given. Electrical discharges, used by Miller and Urey, are shown to
be relatively minor ones, compared to the sun's energy which is so effective
in destroying organic compounds.
Even though set up as a
closed system, so as to force the reaction to the product side by selectively
removing and accumulating the products, only slight amounts of various
organic compounds, such as glycine, resulted. Quoting Hull as estimating
the half-life of glycine as only about 30 days, 97% of it would be decomposed
before reaching the earth.
Considering the possible
3% which falls into the ocean, Hull concludes that ultraviolet radiation
would decompose it in the upper 100 meters in a half-life of about 20
years. The physical chemist guided by proved principles of chemical
thermodynamics and kinetics cannot offer any encouragement to the biochemist
who needs an ocean full of organic compounds to form even life-less
Miller's experiment is an
excellent one, scientifically-speaking, and when properly interpreted
leads to the conclusion that life could certainly never originate spontaneously.
Mutations Reveal The Glory
Of God's Handiwork
Walter E. Lammerts, Ph.D.
Mutations have been studied
through three levels of investigation: (1) their original discovery
and proof of inheritance according to Mendelian principles; (2) the
artificial production of them by radiation and mutagenic chemicals and
parallel with this work, the study of their actual behavior in natural
populations; and (3) the molecular genetic approach.
In spite of great enthusiasm
and many claims, no investigator has shown as yet that any mutation
is so advantageous as to spread through an entire species population
of plants or animals. Molecular geneticists, such as Seymour Benzer,
conclude, "in the DNA of living organisms, typographical errors
are never funny and are often fatal."
The technique used by Benzer
in analyzing T4 bacteriophage virus mutations is described,
and it is shown that all mutations in this phage are either deletions
of varying length, nucleotide base changes, or addition or loss of a
base. When either an addition or loss of a base occurs the remainder
of the code becomes a nonsense code and the combination is non-functional.
Molecular genetics shows
the DNA code to be a marvelously complex one. Surely in studying it
we are coming close to understanding how God is daily at work maintaining
and preserving all creatures.
Is DNA Only A Material Cause?
Harold Armstrong, Ph.D.
By means of philosophical
considerations and, secondly, through specific examination of experimental
facts, the author investigates the notion that DNA is "the secret
An objection is raised that
use of the word "code" in references to DNA involves nothing
more than a metaphor. This and other objections are studied regarding
DNA as a material, efficient, and formal cause. Objection is raised
against the idea that memory is the encoding of experiences in DNA.
Examination of experimental
data brings out denial of the normal expectation that complicated organisms
would have larger amounts of DNA than less complex forms. Facts indicate
that DNA is influenced by environment as well as heredity.
Comparisons are presented
between results in vitro and in vivo experiments involving
The author concludes from
is theoretical arguments and from experimental evidence that DNA is
not the whole cause of life and heredity. DNA is a material cause, but
the author asserts there still must be a formal cause.
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