New Species of Fluke, Ascocotyle howei, in the Context of Sibling
Richard D. Lumsden and Mark H. Armitage
(L.) howei, n. sp., is described from adults found in the intestines
of naturally infected Colombian opossums, Didelphis marsupialis
L. The new species is characterized by a distinctive flagon-shaped body,
and 24-28 scalpel-shaped spines per row, arranged in two complete circumoral
rows around a massive oral sucker. This new species most closely
resembles A. (L.) megalocephala by way of a large oral sucker,
a reduced pre-oral lip, a short ceca, and vitellaria which extend anteriorly
to the level of the pharynx and posteriorly to the upper margin of the
testes. Some characters, however, would place it in subgenus Ascocotyle
or even Phagicola. In an introduction, the typical life histories
and anatomical designations are reviewed for Ascocotyle trematodes,
commonly referred to as flukes. Remarks concerning sibling speciation
and its relevance to creation are summarized in the appendix.
Florida Keys: Evidence in Support of Slow Floodwater Retreat
I: The Upper Keys
Carl R. Froede Jr.
Florida Keys extend from just south of the city of Miami (Soldier Key)
to the Dry Tortugas, a distance of 150 miles. They are composed of two
different types of calcium carbonate (i.e., limestone) rock. The upper
Keys are exposed sections of former living coral reef (PleistoceneKey
Largo Limestone) and the lower Keys are lithified oolite (PleistoceneMiami
Oolite) accumulations. The Key Largo Limestone contains coral species
similar to the modern-day reef. In places it is greater than 170 feet
thick. I propose that the Key Largo Limestone coral reef tract developed
during the period of slow Floodwater retreat spanning from 500 to over
1,000 years following the one-year-long global Flood of Genesis.
MuhlyA Grass That Grows in Circles
Van Andel Creation Research Center Report Number 4
George F. Howe, Emmett L. Williams, and John R. Meyer
There is a grass that grows in ring-like patterns at the Van Andel Creation
Research Center (VACRC), Chino Valley, Arizona. We discuss some aspects
of the morphology, growth habits, and possible ecological benefits of
Muhlenbergia torreyi which is also known as the ring muhly.
A study of its growth rate and growth pattern is being initiated at
VACRC. We recommend ring muhly as a subject of future investigations
by other creationists. In this paper we also comment on the origin of
grasses and their significance in the creation model.
Nampa ImageAn Ancient Artifact?
Robert E. Gentet and Edward C. Lain
July 1889 find in Nampa, Idaho, of a small human figure during a well-drilling
operation caused intense scientific interest last century. Unmistakably
made by human hands, it was found at a depth (320) which would
appear to place its age far before the expected arrival of man in this
part of the world, according to accepted evolutionary dating techniques.
Although all but forgotten by the general scientific community, the
evidence, when viewed without evolutionary bias, still sounds convincing
over a century after its discovery.
Mineral Deposits on a Young Earth
Alexander V. Lalomov and Serguei E. Tabolitch
present a mathematical model for stream placer accumulation far from
the source. Determination of the models parameters is discussed,
and the model is applied to field data from northeastern Russia. The
model calculated the age of these far transfer placers in
northeastern Russia as not more than 2000 years, hundreds of times less
than predicted by uniformitarian geologists. Field data were used to
calculate both average and initial denudation rates during the post-Flood
time for northeastern Russia. The model can be applied in similar settings
to provide an age estimate for other far transfer placer
deposits, and should provide considerable economic benefit in prospecting
for commercial alluvial placer deposits.
Putative Evolution of the Animal Eukaryote Cell Ultrastructure
in the field of molecular biology and cell ultrastructure has revealed
that a vastly greater level of complexity exists in the cell than was
envisioned to exist in the entire human body before 1960. Cells are
complex machines and, like all machines, their many parts (trillions
in the case of cells) must all work in complete harmony yet not interfere
with the function of other parts. The cell is not an amorphous bag of
water, minerals, grains and food as once thought. Modern research has
eloquently revealed it as the most complex machine in the universe.
We now know that the eukaryote cell is vastly more complex than the
gross anatomy of the entire human body. This review briefly summarizes
the enormous complexity of the eukaryotic cell. Also discussed is the
lack of evidence for the evolution of these organelles, revealing a
missing link much larger and of far greater significance
than all others. The gap between organelle containing cells, the eukaryotes,
and those cells lacking them, the prokaryotes, is greater than any morphological
gap between animal body types.