Volume 33, Number 3
A Theory for the Volcanic Origin of Radioactive
Shales and Clays: Examples from the Southeastern United States.
Carl F. Froede, Jr., B.S., P.G.
An explanation is offered, within the young-earth Flood model, for the origin of radioactive shales and clays via the alteration of volcaniclastic material (ash deposits) which contain radioactive elements. This is based on the similarity of radioactive elements identified as leaching from altered volcanic ash deposits in the western United States. The Southeastern United States has many marine organic rich "black" shales, massive clays, and sandstone layers which contain radioactive elements at levels significantly higher than the surrounding strata. The radioactivity associated with those clastics is derived from several radioactive isotopes including uranium (234U), thorium (232Th), potassium (40K), and radium (226Ra). Two specific stratigraphic units, the Chattanooga Shale of Tennessee and various clay units within the massive clastic deposits of the Hawthorn Group of west central Florida, are proposed as examples where radioactive volcaniclastics have altered in-situ to yield radioactive shales, clays.
"Observations of Fossil Material and Charcoalized
Wood in the Dakota Formation in Colorado and Wyoming
Edmond W. Holroyd, III, Ph.D.
The plant and trace fossils of Dinosaur Ridge, Morrison, Colorado, are given further descriptions. Most of the plant fossils in this outcrop of the Dakota Formation are in the form of broken pieces of charcoal or as casts, which often record the wood grain. Charcoal fragments mixed within the sand are interpreted as being deposited under catastrophic conditions. Rocks containing the charcoal along bedding planes are interpreted as being deposited under conditions slow enough to allow buoyancy to separate the plant matter from the rock detritus.
Charcoal fragments were also present in the upper third of the Dakota Formation in the local region near Dinosaur Ridge, at Canon City, Montrose, and Fort Collins, Colorado, and at Newcastle, Wyoming. The charcoal appears to be catastrophically deposited in the region of Dinosaur Ridge and at Newcastle. Further observations and research may fit these widespread deposits into the middle to upper part of Flood strata.
Catastrophism and Modern Geology: Modeling the
Placer Generation Process
Alexander V. Lalomov, Ph.D. and Serguei E. Tabolitch
We present a mathematical model for coastal submarine placer (CSP) generation under lateral coastal drift conditions. We test the model against field data and propose a method of predicting CSP parameters which has possible economic application for locating placer deposits. The model provides a method to estimate the time and rate of CSP formation. The model yields an age for a tin-bearing sediment in northeastern Siberia to be less than 40,000 years. This estimate is approximately 1000 times less than age given by the standard evolutionary geology time scale. A logical extension of this work is to two and three dimensions. This would make possible more detailed comparison of the models with field data and produce improved methods for estimating placer parameters.
The Sands of Time: A Biblical Model of Deep Sea-Floor
Larry Vardiman, Ph.D.
Modern evolutionism requires that the earth be very old. One line of evidence cited is the length of time required to deposit the observed thickness of sea-floor sediments far from any direct continental source. Using the low current depositional rates results in a minimum age of tens of millions of years. The model of deposition presented in this paper differs from the conventional model primarily in the rate of deposition, which is asserted to have peaked at an enormous level during and after the biblical Flood and is presumed to have fallen at an exponential rate to the present low level. Because biblical evidence strongly supports a short historical period between the Flood and the present, the shape of the decay curve is very steep. Data from the Deep-Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) were reinterpreted for this paper. By estimating the thickness of sediment corresponding to this interval and asserting a set of boundary conditions, an analytical model is presented that estimates the age of sediment from a particular depth at a given borehole.
If the modern evolutionary model of deposition is correct, the water temperature evidenced by fossils would show only small, random variations. If a catastrophic event such as the Flood occurred, temporary warming of the water immediately after the catastrophe should have occurred and may be detectable. Fossil evidence of water temperature at the time of deposition is believed by some researchers to correlate with the ratio of oxygen isotopes of mass 16 and 18. Because foraminifera are common in both present-day and ancient sediments and contain oxygen in their carbonate skeletal remains, they are often analyzed for the oxygen isotope ratio and an inferred water temperature is calculated. Based on DSDP data from selected boreholes, and plotted on a time scale modified by the analytical model derived in this paper, a general cooling trend appears plausible from the limited dataset.
An Introduction to Modern Uniformitarian and Catastrophic
Plate Tectonic Concept
John K. Reed, Ph.D.; Chris B. Bennett, B.S.;
Carl R. Froede, Jr., B.S., P.G.; Michael J. Oard, M.S.; and
John Woodmorappe, M.S.
Within the last 35 years, a revolution in geology has occurred through the advent, acceptance, and application of the unifying geodynamic theory of plate tectonics. Acceptance of plate tectonics followed the development of post-World War II geophysical datasets. The concept has proven popular both in and out of the geologic profession, as evidenced by its ubiquitous presence in earth science teaching at all levels, and its presentation in popular media. Plate tectonic interpretations are not restricted to uniformitarian geology. Recent publications advocate derivative catastrophist interpretations of plate tectonics.
Catastrophist and uniformitarian interpretations share many premises and conclusions. Therefore a concise analysis of more voluminous evidence for and against uniformitarian plate tectonics can be used as a shortcut to assess the credibility of catastrophic plate tectonics. Ongoing questions regarding uniformitarian plate tectonics offer reasons for skepticism of catastrophic plate tectonics until a more thorough evaluation is complete.
A Biblical Christian Framework for Earth History
Research: Part IIFoundation and Method of Historical Analysis
within the Biblical Christian System
John K. Reed, Ph.D.
Although the naturalist-uniformitarian system and its derivative view of earth history are demonstrably invalid, a biblical Christian substitute is not logically a de facto replacement. It must first succeed at the points of failure of the naturalist system. In this paper I attempt to show that the biblical Christian system is successful in passing these tests as it demonstrates internal consistency in developing a framework within which historical analysis can take place. Additionally, the epistemological framework of the system is shown to integrate geological models of earth history, separable from the system, in a comprehensive approach to historical analysis.
The Enigma of Sex and Evolution
Jerry Bergman, Ph.D.
A severe problem for evolution theory is to explain the evolution of sexual reproduction and behavior. The theories proposed include dual evolution, i.e., the sexes evolved separately but greatly influenced each others evolution. Another major theory is sexual selection, a process by which organisms directly influence each others evolution. The creationist model proposes that the sexes were designed to be physically and mentally compatible with each other, and for humans a harmonious physical and mental relationship will result if the couple lives in harmony with the physical and mental constraints of this design.