New Trends in the Molecular Basis for Variation
Kevin L. Anderson, Ph.D.
All biological variation is a result of the genetic information contained on the chromosome of the cell. For evolutionary change (horizontal change) to occur, there must be a change in this genetic information. The discovery of introns and exons on the chromosome of "higher" eukaryotic cells has suggested these cells may contain far more genetic information than previously realized. Despite evolutionary suggestions that introns allow for greater variation that ultimately leads to evolutionary change, the cell is actually less capable of undergoing such a change. The potential ramifications for evolutionary change are devastating.
Problems in the Interpretation of Variation Within the Fossil Record
Trevor J. Major, M.Sc.
According to evolutionary theory, the fossil record is supposed to show the development of life over long periods of time. However, construction of evolutionary phylogenies often depends on conclusions drawn from fossil morphology alone. With more detailed morphologic analyses, with comparisons of fossils to living species, and with genetic analyses of both fossil and living representatives, large-scale changes and unequivocal transitions are difficult to perceive. Using several recent studies, this lack of change is attributed to limits on variation through time and among similar organisms.
Frank L. Marsh, Ph.D.
A review is made of known factors, both nonhereditary and hereditary, in the production of new varieties among plants and animals. The origin of these new varieties within basic types is most obvious, but since Creation Week, the production of new basic types of organisms apparently has never occurred.
Hyperbaric Oxygen and Fracture Healing
Kevin C. McLeod, M.D.
Recent medical evidence offers beneficial effects for living systems involving hyperbaric oxygen. New findings imply that past environmental conditions may have better supported life here on Earth. Reviewed here is an investigation in early fracture healing with hyperbaric oxygen exposure. Also, biblical implications are discussed.
Functional Proteins: Chaos or Logos
David A. Kaufmann, Ph.D.
The purpose of this paper is to explore whether undirected, randomized energy through physicochemical laws (Chaos) could make functional proteins necessary for cellular life. Both downhill and uphill work are explained. These two types of work are further explained as thermal entropy work and configuration entropy work. The four requirements for making a single functional protein of living systems are as follows: use of only left-handed amino acids, use of only peptide bonds, linking of amino acids in correct order and prevention of other organic molecules joining the chain. Random methods (Chaos) violate all these requirements. Therefore, the correct three-dimensional structure of functional proteins cannot be developed by undirected physicochemical laws which do not perform configuration entropy work. It is clear that there needs to be an outside intelligent agent (Logos) to fulfill these requirements. An unbiased observer would have great difficulty denying the rationality of inferring from the complexity of functional proteins and a living cell the activity of a "Logos" which is the prime component of the creation model.