Volume 10, Number 4
A DEMONSTRATION OF MARKED SPECIES STABILITY IN ENTEROBACTERIACEAE
JERRY P. MOORE
A pure culture of Proteus mirabilis, a bacterial species belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family of the Eubacteriales order, was isolated from a clinical source. The organism was then serially transferred on to ten randomly-selected laboratory media and the cultures held at temperatures ranging from 20-37'C. for a period of three months. The conditions of culture and incubation were thus varied markedly, yet remaining favorable enough at times for hundreds of bacterial generations to occur. After 62 serial transfers, 30 biochemical and anti-biotic sensitivity characteristics had not changed from those initially observed except for a minimal and variable response to Penicillin G. This simple experiment demonstrates that with living organisms, the principle of "'like yielding like" holds true under a great variety of conditions over a tremendous number of generations.
POST-FLOOD STRATA OF THE JOHN DAY COUNTRY, NORTHEASTERN OREGON
STUART E. NEVINS
Strata of the John Day Country in the Blue Mountain region of northeastern Oregon bear abun- dant testimony of volcanic catastrophism. The strata, which reach a cumulative thickness of over 7,000 feet, consist primarily of numerous terrestrial lava flows, gigantic ash-flow tuff beds (each extruded in a single explosive event as a huge cloud of incandescent ash), boulder breccia layers (presumably deposited from enormous mud flows), tuff-breccia beds (representing very explosive stages in volcanism), and volcanic siltstone and sandstone (deposited as each explosive episode subsided). Fossils of large mammals and tropical and subtropical plants occur on particular horizons and suggest that only at rare occasions of quiescence between volcanic eruptions was life reestablished. The supposed evolutionary fossil series leading to the modern horse is shown to be quite artificial. There is little evidence to suggest 60 million years of history as assumed by uniformitarian geologists. Potassium-argon dates are not consistent with sedimentary evidence. Since good evidences of the Noachian Flood are not found in the John Day Country, the Flood must precede the formation of these strata. The data suggest an interval of many hundreds of years between the close of the Flood and the initiation of the recent glacial period.
PLANT SUCCESSION STUDIES IN RELATION TO MICRO-EVOLUTION
WALTER E. LAMMERTS AND GEORGE F. HOWE
Repeated field analyses were made of variation in five plant species populations (Eschscholtzia californica, Lupinus succulentus, Salvia carduacea, Orthocarpus purpurascens, and Viola pedunculata) over a period of five growing seasons at staked localities in the vicinity of Newhall, California and Corralitos, California. Despite great variation in annual precipitation during the study, no gradual shifts or evolutionary trends were evident. The natural selection observed actually restricted the amount of variation, bringing populations back to a typical or normal form during years of moisture stress. A catastrophic rather than gradual selection was observed in the case of Salvia carduacea leaf form. Origin of the great range in variation found in many species is discussed and in light of negative evidence surrounding natural selection, it is postulated that plant variations were supernaturally derived from the originally small populations of plants of the various kinds or genera which survived the Flood.
A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF RADIOCARBON DATING IN THE LIGHT OF DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL DATA
SIDNEY P. CLEMENTSON
Dendrochronological data with radiocarbon measurements reveal that the radiocarbon activity level in the biosphere over the past few millennia has been falling. This fact can be explained only by the existence of a radiocarbon production level insufficient to sustain the activity level in equilibrium; hence, the production level is lower than the activity level. This situation may be explained by asserting that in the not distant past there was a discontinuity in the distribution of radiocarbon in the atmosphere. Reasons are given for dating this discontinuity not earlier than 5,000 BP, and it is shown that such would completely alter the significance of radiocarbon dates for periods earlier than this.