Copyright © 1973,
1999 by the Creation Research Society. All rights reserved.
Volume 10, Number 1
CROWDING AND ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION OF THE PLANARIA,
E. N. SMITH
Crowding clearly reduces the fissioning rate of the planaria, Dugesia
dorotocephala. This reduction seems to be the result of some water
soluble substance and is not the result of slime, oxygen depletion,
or carbon dioxide increase. At densities below 2.0 planaria per 100
ml. of water, reproduction is not affected by crowding. If planaria
do not reproduce at their maximum rate all the time, but only reproduce
to replace losses, then the effect of intraspecific competition and
natural selection is reduced. Supposedly, without natural selection
there would have been no evolution. If planaria living today in a protected
environment can turn their reproduction off when a certain maximum but
healthy density is reached; then it is quite conceivable that in the
perfect creation before the Fall these animals could regulate their
own numbers without the necessity of outside predation, starvation or
GENETIC ENGINEERING: A BIOLOGICAL TIME BOMB?
DUANE T. GISH
Claims are being made that man will be able to eliminate genetic defects
and eventually "control his own evolution" by a combination
of eugenics and specific alterations in his genetic material. While
eugenics, or controlled human breeding, is possible, its beneficial
effects would be limited or doubtful, and its practice would be socially
unacceptable by the majority of the population. In vitro fertilization
with subsequent in utero implantation of the resultant blastocyst may
some day be possible, but success may be limited, and the method most
likely would be fraught with many dangers for the developing embryo.
Insertion of healthy genetic material into cells that are genetically
defective would have limited benefit even if successful, and the results
would more likely be disastrous rather than beneficial. While correction
of faulty genes by "genetic surgery" may be theoretically
possible, insurmountable technical difficulties will almost certainly
forever prevent its use. The idea that man may someday be able to alter
specific human characteristics and thus "control his own evolution"
is seen as science fiction rather than as serious science.
THE BIBLE, RADIOCARBON DATING AND ANCIENT EGYPT
RONALD D. LONG
In the mid-1960's Egyptologists and radiocarbon chronologists were
in an awkward predicament while attempting to reconcile differences
between historical and astronomical data by means of C14 determinations.
Evidence derived from radiocarbon dating did not match with what experts
in the history of the ancient Near East had reasoned was the astronomical
basis for Egyptian dynastic history. Specimens sealed to certain years
B.C.E. by means of the chronology based on astronomical anchor points,
related dates through the radiocarbon method which did not match the
accepted dating system. Differences were often in the magnitude of centuries.
Archaeological, methodological, and geophysical explanations for the
discrepancies were sought. No answers were forthcoming. What was overlooked
and should still be employed is an historical and Biblical explanation.
Nevertheless, dendrochronologists and geophysicists did arrive at, what
was believed to be, some physical reasons for the discrepancies. Beginning
with de Vries, and continuing under Suess, Ferguson, et. al., the claim
was made that a recalibration of C14 dates is possible which verifies
accepted and "astronomically" founded Pharaonic chronology.
On the other hand, it was also asserted that this supported the accuracy
of the dating technique. Radiocarbon dates without calibration do not
verify and support the ancient history of Egypt as it is taught today.
In Egypt a general calendrical date could be assigned to an object assuming
the historians were correct in their reconstruction of history. With
the tree-rings of the bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), however,
near absolute calendrical dates corresponding to ancient Egyptian times
could be checked by radiocarbon dating. That is, near absolute calendrical
dates were utilized with the assumption that the dendrochronologists
counted the "annual" rings precisely. Calendrical or true
age of the tree rings did not result in the same age as that gained
from C14 analysis. Dendrochronologically dated tree rings revealed problems,
therefore, which when combined with other investigations demonstrated
the fact that some of the foundational assumptions of C14 dating were
invalid and needed restating. From recent research, the following facts
have become known: production of C14 by cosmic rays has varied due to
a (modulation of the galactic cosmic ray flux, b) changes in exchange
rate between the atmosphere and the oceans, c) changes in the earth,s
magnetic dipole moment, and d) world-wide fluctuations in atmospheric
concentration of radiocarbon. In addition, dendrochronologically dated
tree-rings from trees of the southern hemisphere do not generate the
same true or calendrical age and radiocarbon age relationships as that
related by radiocarbon dated tree-rings of bristlecone pine. It is now
an admitted possibility that the amount of radioactive C14 available
to living organisms may vary with altitude, and that "dead' tree-rings
may absorb C14. We are left with pre-calibration C14 dates for Egypt
which, in fact, closely match the correctly correlated Egyptian-Biblical
THE GENESIS KINDS AND HYBRIDIZATION: HAS MAN EVER CROSSED
WITH ANY ANIMAL?
FRANK L. MARSH
In the opinion of some, basic types of organisms have hybridized in
the past, and certain modern races of men have resulted from a man-beast
cross. A review of pertinent literature shows that it abounds with unreliable
reports on the crossing of plants and of animals. With regard to man,
modern anthropologists and geneticists agree in the opinion that human
beings have never crossed with any animal. Genetically the morphological
differences between two basic types of organisms result from their different
DNA'S. The pattern of the nucleotides in the hereditary material determines
the basic type of the organism. In order to hybridize, individuals must
have the same general DNA pattern. All relevant laboratory data indicate
that if the general DNA patterns are different, then a chemical incompatibility
exists between these basic types which makes true fertilization, and
resultantly hybridization, impossible. In the light of modern findings,
the fact that, according to Genesis 1 and 2, all basic types existing
on the earth have been present since creation week, guarantees to Bible
belivers that every basic type of organism, including the human type,
is 100% pure type in all its generations.
THE CREATIONIST AND CONTINENTAL GLACIATION
WILLIAM A. SPRINGSTEAD
This is a review of both catastrophic and uniformitarian writings about
numerous facets of glaciology. While the author discusses literature
covering many viewpoints, he concludes that the data have best fit with
a monoglacial action of reduced scope following the flood of Genesis.
SHOULD MACROEVOLUTION BE TAUGHT AS FACT?
RAYMOND C. TELFAIR II
The title question of this article is examined in light of evidence
from morphology, classification, natural selection, mutation, biogeography,
and anthropology. The author concludes that evolution theory is inadequate
and certainly cannot be considered as a "fact." The author
did not have the objective of thorough discussion of special creationism,
but numerous "leads" to creationist literature are supplied
during review of each topic.
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