40, Number 3
Are Paleosols Really Ancient Soils?
Peter Klevberg, Michael J. Oard, and Richard Bandy
Paleosols, or fossil soils, are being reported by uniformitarian geologists in increasing numbers. This is to be expected, since the "deep time" of the traditional view of earth history would naturally result in the burial and preservation of many soils. However, not only do uniformitarian assumptions guide the investigation of paleosols, but their very definition is unscientific, a "mixed question." This paper addresses the question of whether paleosols can exist, how they may be identified, and how diluvialists should approach the investigation of alleged paleosols.
The Geology of the Kansas Basement: Part I
John K. Reed
The identification of deficiencies and errors in the presuppositions and methods of uniformitarian natural history should be accompanied by an empirical reinterpretation of geological data within the Biblical Worldview. The wealth of geological and geophysical data demands a systematic replacement of the ruling paradigm by creationist explanations of the rock record. Such a reinterpretation is underway for the geology of Kansas, and the first step in that project addresses the basement. The erosional contact between the crystalline basement and overlying sediments can be interpreted as the erosional basal Flood boundary. The exception to this interpretation is found at the Midcontinent Rift System, a complex of basalt flows and adjoining sedimentary basins. This feature is interpreted as the tectonic basal Flood boundary, marking tectonic disruption associated with the Flood onset, with both basalt flows and sedimentation occurring between the onset of the Flood and its marine inundation of the region.
An Old Age for the Earth Is the Heart of Evolution
Jonathan F. Henry, Ph.D.
An accommodationist claim about chronology runs something like this: "Even if it could be shown that the earth is young (which it is not), that would be irrelevant to the chronology of the universe, because there are independent evidences that the universe is as old as evolution says it is. Furthermore, the age issue is not really important." Such statements are not true. The centrality of long ages to evolutionary thought has long been emphasized. Further, the supposed evidences of the vast antiquity of planets, stars, galaxies, and the universe ultimately rest on the belief in the evolutionary age of the earth. The long chronologies for the universe and its parts are therefore not independent of the alleged old age of the earth. If the earth is shown to be young, the evidence for an old universe crumbles.
The Exploitation of Non-Westerners for Evolutionary Evidence
Africans and other non-Westerners were exploited in American and European sideshows for decades as evidence of Darwinism. These displays were a major attraction at many fairs and shows for over a century, and they probably helped to influence millions of people into accepting the idea of the evolution of humans from a lower primate. Although monetary gain was probably the primary motive, the promoters of these shows deceptively tried to pass off various non-Western peoples as "missing links," or at least as "primitive" humans who were evolutionarily less developed than Westerners. These displays had a significant influence on racial attitudes, and thus became important to movements such as the American Ku Klux Klan. Today, we see this history as a major example of the unethical exploitation of minorities.
Grand Falls, Arizona: Evidence of Missing Uniformitarian Time
Carl R. Froede, Jr. and Emmett L. Williams
Grand Falls, Arizona, presents a beautiful setting in which to investigate the uniformitarian interpretations of near-consistent processes occurring over millions of years of time. The Little Colorado River, which incises the Kaibab and Moenkopi formations, was diverted from its course by a basaltic lava flow from the Merriam Crater, forming the falls. We examined the geomorphologic and stratigraphic setting, and postulate an historical model. Evidence in support of uniformitarian time was not found. Rather, it appears that a subaerial eruption of lava flowed across the top of the Kaibab and Moenkopi strata within the last few thousand years. The Kaibab carbonates and overlying Moenkopi sandstones reflect Flood deposition, while the basaltic lava flow was emplaced later, during the post-Flood Ice Age Timeframe. The geomorphic and stratigraphic setting of Grand Falls is consistent with the short time frames predicted by the young-Earth Flood framework.